Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing (GD&T)     


I.D.# C0133Printable Description
Duration: 3 Days
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This in-depth course covers the GD&T system per ASME Y14.5-2009, including why it reduces costs, how to interpret the symbols, and how to apply these tolerances correctly. Participants will learn the basic definitions and rules, the importance of datums, the meaning of each tolerance, and sample ways of gaging geometric tolerances. The class is mainly lecture, with many practice exercises. Participants are encouraged to bring sample parts and/or prints (with or without GD&T already applied) to class for questions. Time is reserved for discussing the application of GD&T to your parts/prints.

Note: A similar course is available live online or on demand. A variety of additional GD&T and Tolerance Stacks learning products are available through SAE's GD&T training subsidiary Effective Training, Inc.,

Learning Objectives
By attending this seminar, you will be able to:

  • Describe the tolerance zones defined by each symbol
  • Determine when to use Rule #1 to control form and when other controls are appropriate
  • Recognize correct syntax for feature control frames
  • Relate common gaging and inspection methods to geometric tolerance zones and feature control frames
  • Correctly apply and interpret the MMC modifier and other modifiers
  • Assess various datum schemes against product functionality and manufacturing and inspection performance
  • Recognize the need for product-specific GD&T guidelines and list the steps required to create them
  • List the changes in the 2009 standard from previous editions

Who Should Attend
This course is ideal for anyone who has a need to apply or interpret geometric tolerances on a product print. Product engineers, manufacturing engineers, CAD designers, quality inspectors, and other engineering and manufacturing personnel will all benefit from becoming fluent in GD&T.

Participants should have knowledge of basic blueprint reading.

Topical Outline

  • Drawings and Dimensioning
    • Importance of engineering drawings
    • Fundamental dimensioning rules
    • Review of coordinate dimensioning and tolerancing
    • Benefits of using GD&T
    • History of GD&T
    • Quality issues - how GD&T fits into other standards
    • GD&T standard: ASME Y14.5-2009
  • Introduction to GD&T Symbols and Terms
    • Definitions
    • Material conditions -- MMC, LMC, RFS
    • Radius and controlled radius
    • Reading a feature control frame
  • Rules and Concepts of GD&T
    • Rule #1- Size controls form
    • Inspecting a part for size limits
    • Rule #2 - Implied RFS
    • Virtual condition
    • Bonus tolerance
    • Gaging GD&T-fixtures; special gages; CMMs
  • Form Tolerances
    • Flatness applied to a surface
    • Straightness applied to a surface
    • Circularity
    • Cylindricity
    • Straightness and flatness applied to a feature of size
    • Per-unit form control
  • Datums
    • Purpose of datums in GD&T
    • Single planar datum
    • The datum reference frame
    • Datum targets
    • Feature-of-size datums
    • Compound datums
    • How to select datums for a part
    • Simulating datums on gage fixtures and CMMs
  • Profile Tolerances
    • General definition of profile
    • Profile of a line
    • Profile of a surface
    • Profile with datum references
    • Composite profile control
    • Tolerance stacks; calculating min/max wall thickness
  • Orientation Tolerances
    • Perpendicularity
    • Angularity
    • Basic dimensions
    • Parallelism
    • Target plane modifier
    • The pitch diameter rule
  • Location Tolerances
    • Location control with coordinate dimensions
    • Definition of "true position"
    • Application of position at RFS
    • Using position with MMC or LMC
    • Application of MMB and RMB on datum features
    • Inspecting parts for position
    • Composite position control
    • Two single-segment position control
    • Projected tolerance zone
    • Calculating tolerance values - fixed and floating fasteners
    • Concentricity - why it is not recommended
    • Symmetry
  • Runout Tolerances
    • Definition of runout-TIR, FIM, coaxiality
    • Difference between runout and other circular controls
    • Circular runout
    • Total runout
  • Wrap-up and Drawings Review
    • Comparison with the 1994 standard
    • Discussion of capability and statistics with GD&T
    • Tolerance stack calculations - root-sum-square
    • Applying GD&T to new designs/programs
    • Review sample drawings
    • Special application exercises using actual drawings

Instructor(s): John-Paul Belanger
John-Paul Belanger is president of Geometric Learning Systems, a consulting firm specializing in geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) and stack analysis. For over fifteen years, he has trained people throughout North America and Europe in the proper interpretation and application of GD&T per the Y14.5 standard by using practical examples. Mr. Belanger is certified by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers as a Senior GD&T Professional, and has worked with a wide range of companies in the automotive, aerospace, electronic, and other industries to apply tolerances and perform stack calculations. He holds a B.S. in aerospace engineering from the University of Michigan specializing in aircraft design and safety.

Fees: $1705.00 ; SAE Members: $1364.00 - $1535.00

2.0 CEUs
You must complete all course contact hours and successfully pass the learning assessment to obtain CEUs.

”Excellent course for providing a foundation of GD&T!”
Greg Blaszczyk
Design Engineer
Empire Electronics

”The class provided the foundation needed to be successful for my job in the aerospace industry.”
Heidi Steinhauer
Department Chair and Associate Professor
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

”SAE always has top notch instructors with real world experience which give their students the best information possible, that in itself is priceless.”
Kevin Schneider
Project Engineer
FTE Automotive

For additional information, contact SAE Customer Service at 1-877-606-7323 (724/776-4970 outside the U.S. and Canada) or at

For a quote on bringing this course to your company site, fill out a Corporate Learning Solutions Request Form